Prostate Cancer

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Prostate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer that affects men. In this condition, cancer begins to grow in the prostate, which is a gland in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer is one that grows slowly and remains confined to the prostate gland in the initial stages. While a few types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal treatment, others may be severe and spread quickly.

What are the Types of Prostate Cancer?

There are different types of prostate cancer. They include:

  • Acinar Adenocarcinoma: One of the most common types of prostate cancer, adenocarcinomas are cancers that develop in the gland cells which line the prostate gland. Almost everyone with prostate cancer has this type.

  • Transitional Cell or Urothelial Cancer: This kind of cancer begins in the cells that line the tube, carrying the urine outside of the body. This type of cancer usually starts in the bladder and spreads into the prostate. However, it rarely starts in the prostate and may spread to the bladder entrance and other nearby tissues.

  • Ductal Adenocarcinoma: This begins in the cells that line the ducts or tubes of the prostate gland. It often tends to grow and spread faster than the acinar adenocarcinoma.

  • Squamous Cell Cancer: This kind of cancer develops from flat cells that cover the prostate. They often grow and spread faster than the adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

  • Small Cell Prostate Cancer: This kind of cancer is made up of small, round cells and is a type of neuroendocrine cancer.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer has no symptoms in the early stages. However, as the condition advances, the symptoms may begin to appear. A few prostate cancer symptoms may include:

  • Urinating frequently
  • Difficulty in urinating
  • The urgency to urinate
  • Leaking urine
  • Decreased force of urine
  • Discomfort in the pelvic region
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Blood in the urine or semen
  • Pain or stiffness in the hips, lower back, pelvis or thighs.

What are the Causes of Prostate Cancer?

The prostate cancer causes are not clear. However, certain factors may increase the risk of developing the condition. They are:

  • Age
  • Ethnicity
  • Obesity
  • Family History and genes
  • Previous cancer
  • Inflammation of the prostate

What are the Stages of Prostate Cancer?

There are four prostate cancer stages. They are:

  • Stage 1- Prostate Cancer (I): In this stage, the tumour is non-detectable by a physical examination or an imaging test. This means that cancer has not spread outside the prostate. The discovery of the prostate cancer at this stage is approximately 80% with a 5-year survival rate of about 100%.

  • Stage 2- Prostate Cancer (Divided into IIA and IIB Stages): In this stage the tumour may or may not be detectable through imaging tests or a physical examination and has not spread outside the prostate.

  • Stage 3- Prostate Cancer (III): In this stage, cancer spreads beyond the prostate and may also spread to the nearby seminal vesicles. This can also include some of the stage-4 prostate cancers that have not moved to other organs, despite having advanced indicators.

  • Stage 4- Prostate Cancer (IV): This is the last stage of prostate cancer and describes the tumour which has spread to other parts of the body. This includes the lymph nodes, liver, lungs, bladder or bones.

However, it is vital to know that each case is different and the statistics are only general guidelines. With advancements in prostate cancer treatments, the chances of surviving this condition are increasing.

How to Treat Prostate Cancer?

The options for prostate cancer treatment depend on numerous factors such as how fast the cancer is growing, how much it has spread, the overall health and the benefits and side effects of the treatment. A few treatment options include:

  • Radiation therapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Biological therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Surgery to remove the prostate
  • Freezing the prostate tissue

Apollo Experience

We, at Apollo Clinic, aim at offering you the best health care services for all your health concerns, one of them being prostate cancer. With state-of-the-art facilities and a team of few of the best urologists in the country, we ensure to provide you with the best prostate cancer treatment. Also, helping you live positively and ensuring that you lead a healthy life.

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